This presentation encompasses research data on pianists’ hand sizes sourced from different studies according to gender and level of professional attainment. More data on gender issues through the history of piano, on competition winners according to gender, and on the keyboard sizes of early pianos will be discussed. The collected hand span data of University of Michigan piano students will be examined with tables showing the injury rates, and scarcity of small-handed pianists in this institution. Lastly, the case study results of five small-handed pianists who practiced on smaller keyboards will be examined. Teachers may try out the pianos in room 1215 immediately following the presentation.